Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Can Artificial Drainage of Wetlands Have Detrimental Effects on the Cha

IntroductionWetland soils atomic number 18 widely diverse. They are found from the arctic to the tropics. They can be mineral or organic, seasonal or year-round, marine or fresh wet. The one thing they all provoke in common is that, for at least part of the year, they are consummate(a) with water. This saturation has a significant impact on the soils characteristics such as the biota, chemistry, and physics. However, over the past century more than half of all the wetlands in the United States have been drained for agriculture and other uses such as construction. When the soils are drained the characteristics are drastically changed. This paper is an attempt to signalize the changes in artificially drained soils and to consider a few of the consequences of these changes. soundboxThe physical properties of saturated soils vary somewhat from wetland to wetland but are characterized by certain processes. One is the interaction of the soil with the watertable. Three patterns of pos sible groundwater work have been considered water could flow into the saturated areas from the surrounding area (discharge), fashioning the saturated area the focal point water could flow done swamps because of local relief (flow-through) or water could flow from the saturated regularise into surrounding areas (recharge) possibly due to differential water use by plant communities or pumping (Crownover et al, 1995). There can also be plumb exchange of water between the groundwater and saturated soil. For example, capillary effects pull back water upward into the soil from the water table. Besides the vertical and plain flow of water, the area of the soil taken up by water is important. Wetland soils are either saturated or nearly saturated so that much of the pore space is... ...ne flatwood landscape Soil Science fiat of America diary, 59, 1199-1206. Fausey, N.R., Brown, L.C., Belcher, H.W. and Kanwar, R.S. (1995) Drainage and water quality in the Great Lakes and cornbelt s tates Journal of Irrigation Drainage Engineering, 121, 283-288. Leventhal, E. (1990). Alternative uses of wetlands other than conventional farming in Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and northeast EPA/171/R-92/006, 145 p. McBride, M. B. (2003) Environmental Chemistry of Soils Advances in Environmental Research, 8, 5-19Mitsch, W.J. and Gosselink, J.G. (2000). The value of wetlands richness of scale and landscape setting. Ecological Economics, 35, 25-33Schipper, L.A., Harfoot, C.G., McFarlane, P.N., and Cooper, (1994) Anaerobic rotting and denitrification during plant decomposition in an organic soil Journal of Environmental Quality, 23, 923-928

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