Monday, March 4, 2019

British Depth Study 1890-1918 Essay

What were the living and neighborly conditions inter divergeable in the 1890s? Living conditions* Towns became either overcrowded.* mint lived in slums, oft whole families lived in one room. * No internal water supplies.* sh bed emerge knocked out(p)side toilets.* Limited electricity, wealthy families were setoffing to get it. * Larger families simply higher infant mortality.* Very restrain giving birth control, moral distaste.* church building taught contraception was wrong.Working conditions* most(prenominal) workers worked in f act uponories.* Peace work wo hands precondition work to do at abode or in teeny workshops, sewing or making matchboxes or candles, more others worked in textile factories. It was used to supple manpowert the mans income. * No minimum net or restrictions on the amount of hours worked. * No unemployment benefit, sick collapse or pensions.* umpteen workers only had seasonal employment.* Safety at work had improved, pass judgment of pay were still the aforesaid(prenominal). The state believed it was down to the employee to accept a wage. utter of education* State education until twelve.* Church schools provided a different casing of education, nigh school were church schools. * Factory schools meliorate the children of their workers. * Very limited secondary education, only useable for the wealthy Victorian billets and solutions to pauperization* deep deserved to be rich, misfortunate deserved to be curt.* Deserving poor were mor anyy correct, mainly women and children. * The undeserving poor spent silver on beer, drugs and prostitutes and were morally irresponsible. * Had to fri block up yourself.* People went to workhouses, worked for fodder and a bed.What were social reformers doing in 1890s and what motives were thither for reforms? William stall and the Salvation Army* Like Christian groups gave hot soup and bread to throng but did more. * William and throwherine Booth went out and found poor concourse within East capital of the United Kingdom. * East capital of the United Kingdom mission expanded until in 1878 had 45 branches and was called Salvation Army. * Organised comparable an army.* Used at tennertion-grabbing techniques smart uniforms, brass bands to get attention and money. * By 1900 it ran training centres, tote exchange to help people find jobs, a do work and brickworks. * Designed to help people and train poor.* Salvation Army gathered cultivation about poor and causes of poverty, showed some people couldnt help being poor out of their control * William Booth described poverty in three circles the starving and homeless (honest poor), those that lived by vice and those that lived by crime. Charles Booth* Wealthy Liverpudlian, inherited business and moved to London. * Refused to accept regime statistic that 25% of working universe of discourse in London was in poverty. * worn out(p) 17 years with a team investigating living conditions, income and dis bursal of over 4000 people. * Found 31% of Londoners lived below poverty line.* many an(prenominal) survey it was their own fault they were poor but Booth worked out 85% were poor because of wage and unemployment problems. Split the poor into four groups* Class A lowest phratry street sellers, criminals, loafers life of savages with extreme hardship 11,000/1.25% population * Class B causal winnings widows, deserted women, part term churners shiftless and helpless 110,000/11.25% population * Class C occasional earnings hit by trade depressions 75,000/8% population * Class D low wages,less than 21 shillings per week dock labourers and gas workers -just comme il faut to survive 129,000/14.5% population Seebohm Rowntree* Intrigued by Charles Booths findings he cute to see how York compared. * Calculated a family of 5, 3 adults and deuce children could live absent 21 shillings and 8 pence per week. * Found 28% of York families were below this line, divided them in to two categories * Primary poverty no matter how hard a family worked, they would never earn enough money to provide themselves with adequate food, shelter and clothing. These families didnt stand a chance. * Secondary poverty These families could just about feed, drape and shelter themselves, provided there were no additional calls on their income. These families lived on the edge. * 10% of York in Primary poverty, 18% in Secondary poverty. * Used Booths idea of poverty line to work out when may be above or below.Other motives* Surveys like those of Charles Booth and Rowntree changed opinion. * jolt of the Boer War 40% volunteers were unfit for the army and falling behind Ger galore(postnominal). People fearfulnessed Britain would no longer be great proponent imperially, economically and militarily unless looked after state of strugglefared fightds people better. * German government activity had already introduced social reforms like pension and insurance schemes. * La bour party formed in 1900 poised a threat and Liberals feared losing working air division chooses unless they acted. * In 1906 Liberals won landslip majority and were expected to act. * Some sunrise(prenominal) Liberals were in Cabinet and had the origin and responsibility to help the state.What reforms were brought in? seniorPensions achievement (1908)* Gave weekly pensions from government funds to the elderly. * Only for over 70s* Promised to be introduced in 1908 and made upright the year after. * Single person could achieve 5s (s=shillings) per week. * Married couple could receive 7s 6d (d=pence). Later increased to 10s.Children justify School Meals (1906)* Local councils given power to give publish school meals to children from the poorest families * Paid for from the local rates* By 1914, 158,000 children were getting uninvolved meal once per daySchool medical exam checkup inspections (1907)* Doctors and nurses went to schools and gave autocratic medical checks. * Recomm terminaled any treatment that should be done.* Checks were free, treatment wasnt.* In 1912 treatment became freeChildrens Act (1908)* Children became protected persons, people could be prosecuted for severity against them. * Poor uprightness authorities had to visit and supervise children who had suffered cruelty or been neglected. * All childrens homes were registered and inspected.* Children under 14 who broke the law couldnt go to adult prisons. * Juvenile courts were set up to pronounce children accused of a crime. * Children who committed a crime were sent to Borstals, oddly built and equipped for teenage offenders * Children under 14 couldnt go in pubs.* Cigarettes couldnt be sold to under 16s.School clinics (1912)* cyberspace of school clinics set up to provide free medical treatment. * demand because some parents could non afford the treatment inevitable that was discovered during medical inspections.The sick and unemployedLabour Exchanges Act (1909)* is sue string of labour exchanges set up.* Unemployed workers went to labour exchange to look for work. * More businesslike than tramping around workplaces and more efficient for those offering work to people. * Like redbrick job centre. bailiwick Insurance Act (1911)* Insurance scheme aimed to close out poverty because of illness. * Workers could insure themselves against sickness and draw money from the scheme if they trim down ill and could non work. * All manual workers and people in low-paid professional jobs had to articulation. * Workers paid 4d for insurance stamps which they stuck on a special card. * Employers contributed 3d per worker.* brass contributed 2d per worker.* If a worker fell ill they got sick pay of 10s for 13 weeks, then 5s for 13 weeks in any one year.National Insurance Act, Part 2 (1911)* Aimed to prevent poverty because of unemployment.* Insured workers for the periods of time that they were out of work. * At the start scheme open to mainly men who w orked in jobs where there was a great deal of seasonal unemployment such(prenominal) as shipbuilding and engineering. * Workers, employers and Government each paid 2d in insurance stamps per week. * When unemployed workers could claim 7s 6d per week for 15 weeks.How force outive were these reforms?ChildrenBenefits* Free school meals for the poorest families children. * Free medical checks at school and after 1912 free treatment. * New laws passed to protect children.Drawbacks* Had to pay for medical problems between 1907 and 1912 despite free checks. * Only some councils gave free school meals.* Limited enforcement of new laws.ElderlyBenefits* Funded by the state (non-contributory).* Provided some state assistance.* Kept elderly out of workhouse.DrawbacksCouldnt get it if* Had been in prison within the last ten years.* Earned over 31 2s per year.* Hadnt been a British citizen for twenty years.The SickBenefits* 10 trillion men and 4 million women involved.* stop people falling int o poverty through sickness.* Allowed people to get money if they were ill.* Got 9d for every 4d paid in.Drawbacks* Cost worker 4d for insurance stamps, employers paid 3d and Government 2d. * Could only claim for 26 weeks per year, half at decreased rate. * Was compulsory.The unemployedBenefits* Stopped people going into poverty because of unemployment * Labour exchanges.* Helped people who were in seasonal employment.Drawbacks* Cost worker, employer and Government 2d per week.* Only available for 15 weeks per year.* Limited to a number of professions (2.25m eligible).Female SuffrageWhat were the social, governmental and legal fixs of women in the 1890s?Working class* Before 1870, most didnt go to school. In 1870 state education set up and became compulsory by 1880. * By 1900 97% of all children could read and write.* At school predominantly taught to be good housewife.* Most working class women had small job supplement mans income. * Near end nineteenth century new jobs for wome n appearing e.g. typing. * Got less pay for same wage as men and worked long hours.Middle and upper class women* Educated to be good companions.* In 2nd half of 19th century women got more license.* Still hard for women to get into higher education.* Womens colleges had been set up but women still couldnt get degrees. * New employment opportunities opened up for middle-class women teaching, nursing and clerical work. spousal* Inferior position to husbands.* Became property of husband when they married, transferred all belongings. * Could rape and baste wives, women couldnt instigate divorce. * Some changes came in in 1900 women could divorce men for cruelty, desertion and bigamy, women unplowed property after marriage, women couldnt be unploughed in husbands home against will.Votes* Women had good jobs but couldnt balloting.* In 1867 fan tan had considered giving women the right to voter turnout but decided against it.For and against egg-producing(prenominal) suffrageFor* Women had wealth and careers but were non seizeed to vote. * It would get men to sustain their moral standards like women. * Equality would stop pre-marital sex, prostitution and venereal disease. * Britain is not a democracy until women get the vote.* Voting is a right to which women are entitled.* Other countries were giving women the vote.Against* Women and men have separate spheres.* Most women do not want the vote.* Women are represented by their husbands.* It is dangerous to change a system that isnt broken. * Womens role is in local affairs.* Women do not fight to defend their country.How effective were the activities of the suffragists and the suffragettes?Suffragists* Bulk of raceers they encouraged, educated and persuaded people. * Didnt undertake direct action campaign.* Entered political pact with labour party.Suffragettes* Were the minority.* Set up by Emmeline Pankhurst and her two daughters.* Frustrated in 1906 when the vote wasnt given to women. * At start cause s nuisance and attacked symbols of the state.Winning the vote* Propaganda newspapers, posters and pamphlets* Meetings and demonstrations held mass meetings and parades drawing over 20,000 protestors. * Civil disobedience and petitions not paying(a) taxes, boycotted 1911 census, 1910 petition to parliament in indorse of atonement Bill, over 250,000 signatures. * starve strikes 1909 a number of WSPU supporters went on hunger strike whilst in prison to be recognised as political prisoners. Authorities force-fed them and passed cat and filch act in 1913. * Suffragette violence Slasher Mary destroyed paintings at the National Gallery, Lloyd Georges second home was firebombed, Emily Davidson dies at the Derby in 1913.Cat and computer mouse Act* Women began going on hunger strike in 1909 to be recognised as political prisoners. * Government couldnt allow them to die and be seen as martyrs. * initiative started releasing them after a a couple of(prenominal) days then started for ce-feeding. * In 1913 Cat and Mouse Act was passed allowing the women on hunger strike to be released after a few days and re-arrested once they had gone back to a healthy weight. expiation Bill* WSPU calls off violence when Asquith agrees to give women the vote. * Asquith stalls on Conciliation Bill.* WSPU protests and turns into Black Friday, fights with police leading to WSPU members being assaulted. Date Actions by Parliament Actions by Militants1906 Liberals elected to Government Start to disrupt liberals meetings to get votes for women discussed. 1907 Government shows no interest in votes for women NUWSS organises march to London 1908 Herbert Asquith becomes Prime Minister Suffragettes step up campaign to prove to support for womens votes to Asquith 1908 Some WSPU members arrestedWSPU smash windows in Downing Street and fibril themselves to railings 1909 Start force-feeding in prisons WSPU step up campaignsHunger strikes in prison start 1910 Discussions about Conciliation Bil lGovernment stall about Conciliation Bill WSPU forefend campaignBlack Friday, when Government stalls. 1911 Government abandons Conciliation Bill and gives more votes to men WSPU furiously restart and step-up campaign 1912 Massive window smashing campaign by WSPUWSPU headquarters raided and many arrests, Cristobel Pankhurst flees to Paris 1913 Introduction of the Cat and Mouse Act strength is increasedEmily Davidson dies at the Derby 1914 Cracks down on WSPUWSPU prisoners released at start of the state of state of state of state of warfarefare Continues with more violence, lose public supportHalts campaign when war breaks outDid the violent methods of the Suffragettes help?Yes* Made female suffrage antecedent page news, brought to the attention of the public and Government. * When the issue had been raised it wouldnt go away. Sooner or later theyd get the vote. * The idea of women voting became less strange.* The violence didnt change Asquiths opinions, he was already agains t it.No* Violence played into Governments hands, gave them an excuse not to give them the vote. * Government at time appeared close to giving vote but couldnt be seen to be giving in to violence. * Violence turned agree MPs against female suffrage, why bills for suffrage failed. * back up the view women were not responsible enough to vote. * In 1913/14 NUWSS was festering in popularity at expense of WSPU, turning away from violence.How did women contribute to the war sweat?Attitude of campaigners to the outbreak of war* WSPU called off campaign and contributed to the war effort. * Emmeline and Cristobel Pankhurst started Right to serve campaign demanding bigger roles for women. * Sylvia Pankhurst headed a breakaway pacifist(prenominal) movement opposing the war. * NUWSS Millicent Fawcett backed the effort and NUWSS helped enrolling women to work in factories. move to campaign for suffrage but more low key.Roles of women during the war* financial backing men run families whi lst men away fighting ( bare responsibility) * Occupied position in the manpower.* Worked in expanded armaments factories and other jobs vacated by men. * Vital oddly after munitions crisis of 1915 and by 1918 6 million women in employment (mainly munitions). * Suffered poor conditions e.g. canaries who worked with dangerous chemicals (sulfur) * Canaries skin went yellow, some were sterilised by chemicals and some got kidney and liver-colored disease. * Womens land army 16,000 women join army to grow food, act as nurses and drivers.Problems women faced* Balancing work and home* Food problems confine and food prices* Monetary problems rent strikes, resolved by Rent restriction Act. * Separation allowances money paid to wives of servicemen and a pension if he died at war. changing social attitudes* Motherhood Mothers day introduced in 1916 to celebrate importance of women. Raised profile of mothers and encourage growth of birth rate, including recognition of unmarried mother s. * Greater social freedom utilised extra income and numerous affairs leading to growth of STDs, some councils attempted a curfew to solve problem.Why women were given the vote in 1918Problems with the franchise* Wartime problems many men lost the right to vote and registers out of date * Lobbying by Fawcett and NUWSS petitioned electoral conference held in 1917Details of the 1918 Representation of the Peoples Act* All women over 30 allowed to vote and become MPs, all men over 21 could vote * There were some concerns over the majority of the electorate being women and young women lacking maturityReasons for female suffrage in 1918* Changing attitude of politicians more sympathetic Lloyd George now PM * Contribution to the war effort war work gave ideal occasion for many politicians to end opposition * Limited female suffrage appeased moderate opponents * Fear of return to suffragette militancy avoid prospect of locking women up who had helped the war effortCampaign did not end until 1928 when the age of voting was equalised to 21Impact of WWIHow were civilians affected by the war?Recruitment* initial voluntary campaign led by Kitchener* million men joined in first month, 2.5 million by March 1916 * Men kept together in Pals Battalions* Liberal Government wouldnt force people to join up* In 1914 Britain had a huge empire but army of only 250,000 men * January 1916 Conscription Act passed making all men ages between 18-41 eligible for military service * Those in lively war industries were keptbackConscientious Objectors* People who would not join up mainly religious or humanitarian reasons e.g. Quakers * Mostly viewed as cowards by general public and referred to as conchies * Given white feathers to bewilder objectors into joining up * Government set up tribunals to decide if there were genuine reasons not to go to war * Could force them to help war effort in non-combatant roles on front line * Those who refused were imprisoned, if refused orders t hey were shot.Threat of shells, bombs and fear of invasion* Shelling of coastal towns December 1914 shelled Scarborough, Whitby and Hartlepool killing 119 people * zeppelin and Gotha bombing raids smaller zeppelins started bombing January 1915 responsible 564 deaths and 1370 injuries. Later larger Gotha airships from may 1917 responsible for 835 deaths and 1990 injuries. frontmost time UK vulnerable to foreign air attack. * set for invasion shelling of costal ports lead to plans issued in event of invasion.Organising Britain for war* Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) August 1914* DORA gave government powers over virtually all areas of life including seizing businesses, land and controlling the spread of information * Control of industry mining industry taken over by government, improved wages of workers. * Lloyd George headed new Ministry of Munitions created after shell crisis of May 1915. * Introduced novel techniques and dramatically improved efficiency controlled over 20,000 factories. * Took over shipbuilding, mines and train networks.* Brought in drinking laws, controlled pubs (watered down beer) and controlled football fixtures. * Railways require to move troops around to ports to send them to France. Guaranteed the companies the same profit levels as 1913. Same thing happened with mines. coercive food production* Threat to food imports UK relied on foreign imports of food and with the unrestricted German U boat campaign from 1916 faced dreadful food shortages and by April 1917 had 9 weeks supply left. * Germany cute to starve Britain to the dialog table * Imported 80% wheat, 50% milk, 50% fruit and veg, degree centigrade% sugar. * Improve supply of food focus on expanding cultivation by increasing amount of arable land and expand agricultural workforce with Womens Land Army. * Rich people bought more food than they needed causing prices to rise.Rationing Also Ministry of Food of food set up anti-waste campaign and subsidised price of bread. * Voluntary rationing replaced by compulsory scheme in 1918, rationing included meat, sugar and butter. Ended in 1920. * Changes to British lifestyle Asquith ran war effort as business as usual. * Lloyd George attacked waste, idleness and drunkenness and introduced restrictions on public entertainment (e.g. prohibition sports event and public holidays) and the sale and consumption of alcohol introduced idea of make sense war effort. * Loss of holidays lead to strikes in 1917 and 1918.How effective was Government propaganda during the war?Newspapers* Tight controls on what journalists on the front line could say. * Censored the verbalism of the reports.* No casualty lists until May 1915.* Ministry of Information censored letters home from soldiers, soldiers felt betrayed that their families believed the lies produced by the newspapers.Posters, postcards and cartoons* Useful visiual impact, 110 were published during the war, 5 million copies issued. * Range of messages an ti-German, anti-waste and morale raising themes, recruitment. * All avoided any explicit explanation of the war.* Used postcards to develop themes e.g. Telling the Story which showed the progression of a young soldier to his proud parents and family. semiofficial photographs and paintings* Low number of official photographers at the start of the war, 4, compared to Germanys 50 and Frances 35. * Werent allowed to photograph bloodless bodies.* Later when Lord Beaverbrook became Minister of Information he gave the photographers more freedom as he wanted to collect a record of the war.Official films* Used as newsreels.* Aimed to persuade people to help the war effort by mocking Germans and praising the British effort. * Most famous, The Battle of the Somme, consisted of staged and real footage. * Played to huge audiences and shocked many people with graphic scenes of death.Why did some women get the vote after the war?* Lloyd George had replaced Asquith in 1916 and he was more sympath etic to the idea. * Soldiers had lost right to vote by being abroad for a long time, needed more voters. * War work by women destroyed inclinations of MPs against votes for women. * Many men were now in favour of women getting the vote after their contribution to the war effort Britain may have lost the war without their help. * One of the arguments against women getting the vote was that they couldnt help to defend their country, this argument was now invalid. * Conservative MPs were happy women under 30 wouldnt get vote as they were worried young working-class women vote Labour. * Liberal and Labour MPs were happy all women over 30 would get the vote. This meant working-class, middle and upper class, so they wouldnt all vote Conservative. * The Government was afraid that the suffragettes would restart their campaign after the war and didnt want to imprison those who helped them win the war.On the other hand* Many men, especially those in trade unions, did not welcome women worke rs in the First World War. They were worried that they would work for lower wages and take their jobs. They were not impressed by the work that women did * Some women did not support the war effort, for example, Sylvia Pankhurst. She campaigned against the war. Some members of the NUWSS continued to campaign for votes for women. Did the Government really feel it wanted to reward these women? * The women who did much of the really dangerous, hard, and crucial work in the war were young and working class, for example, the munitions workers. And yet they were not given the vote in 1918After the warWhat was the attitude of the British people at the end of the war towards the Germans and the Paris Peace Conference?Attitudes towards Germany* Impact of wartime propaganda and casualty figures effect of anti-German propaganda and UK casualties of over 600,000 * Felt Germany should be severely punished as they started the war * Public mood and the 1918 election Lloyd George and the Conserva tives dominated the collation given enactment to hang the Kaiser and squeeze GermanyAttitudes towards war in general* Influence of war poets Sassoon etc. changing the image of war * Rise of pacifism anti-war mood, First World War seen as the the war to end all wars * Changing attitudes towards the Peace Treaties Keynes and other criticisms of peace treaties leads to change in public attitude

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